The following is a list of key publications that support and highlight the foundation of our development pipeline and ongoing research.
Cromolyn Sodium Delays Disease Onset and is Neuroprotective in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Published online in Scientific Reports , 27 November 2019
Abstract Excerpts: Recent studies from our group have demonstrated that cromolyn sodium exerts neuroprotective effects in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease by altering microglial cell activation. Here, we tested the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of cromolyn sodium in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our results indicate that cromolyn sodium treatment significantly delayed the onset of neurological symptoms, and improved deficits in PaGE performance in both male and female mice. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in motor neuron survival in the lumbar spinal cord as well as a significant decrease in the denervation of the neuromuscular junction of the tibialis anterior muscle in cromolyn treated transgenic SOD1G93A mice. Lastly, cromolyn treatment decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the lumbar spinal cord and plasma and decreased mast cell degranulation in the tibialis anterior muscle of transgenic SOD1G93A mice. Together, these findings suggest that cromolyn sodium provides neuroprotection in the SOD1G93A mice by decreasing the inflammatory response.
Published online in Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, October 2019
Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinical trials, focused on disease modifying drugs and conducted in patients with mild to moderate AD, as well as prodromal (early) AD, have failed to reach efficacy endpoints in improving cognitive function in most cases to date or have been terminated due to adverse events. Drugs that have reached clinical stage were reviewed using web resources (such as clinicaltrials.gov, alzforum.org, company press releases, and peer reviewed literature) to identify late stage (Phase II and Phase III) efficacy clinical trials and summarize reasons for their failure. For each drug, only the latest clinical trials and ongoing trials that aimed at improving cognitive function were included in the analysis. Here we highlight the potential reasons that have hindered clinical success, including clinical trial design and choice of outcome measures, heterogeneity of patient populations, difficulties in diagnosing and staging the disease, drug design, mechanism of action, and toxicity related to the long-term use. We review and suggest approaches for AD clinical trial design aimed at improving our ability to identify novel therapies for this devastating disease.
Assessing the Neuroprotective Effects of Cromolyn Sodium in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Presented at MND/ALS Meeting in Glasgow 2018
Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammatory processes are implicated in the initiation and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previous reports have demonstrated an increase in microgliosis and astrogliosis in the lumbar spinal cord of SOD1G93A transgenic mice before the onset of symptoms, a neuroinflammatory response which correlated with disease progression. Importantly, early stage homeostatic microglia enhanced motor neuron survival, while pro-inflammatory or ramified microglia were toxic to motor neurons in SOD1G93A mice. Recent studies from our group have demonstrated that cromolyn sodium, and FDA-approved compound, exerts neuroprotective effects in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease by altering microglia activation. Here, we tested the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of cromolyn sodium in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. Our results indicate that cromolyn sodium treatment significantly delayed the onset of neurological symptoms, and improved deficits in PaGE performance in both male and female mice. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in survival in treated female transgenic mice compared to the vehicle group. There was also a significant increase in motor neuron survival and a decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lumbar spinal cord and plasma of cromolyn-treated transgenic SOD1G93A mice. Lastly, cromolyn treatment increased GPR35 levels in the lumbar spinal cord of transgenic mice. Together, these findings suggest that cromolyn sodium provides neuroprotection in the SOD1G93A mice and warrants further assessment as a potential therapeutic for ALS.
Cromolyn Reduces Levels of the Alzheimer’s Disease-Associated Amyloid β-Protein by Promoting Microglial Phagocytosis
Published online in Nature, Scientific Reports, in January 2018
Abstract: Amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) deposition is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ deposition triggers both pro-neuroinflammatory microglial activation and neurofibrillary tangle formation. Cromolyn sodium is an asthma therapeutic agent previously shown to reduce Aβ levels in transgenic AD mouse brains after one-week of treatment. Here, we further explored these effects as well as the mechanism of action of cromolyn, alone, and in combination with ibuprofen in APPSwedish expressing Tg2576 mice. Mice were treated for 3 months starting at 5 months of age, when the earliest stages of β-amyloid deposition begin. Cromolyn, alone, or in combination with ibuprofen, almost completely abolished longer insoluble Aβ species, i.e. Aβ40 and Aβ42, but increased insoluble Aβ38 levels. In addition to its anti-aggregation effects on Aβ, cromolyn, alone, or plus ibuprofen, but not ibuprofen alone, increased microglial recruitment to, and phagocytosis of β-amyloid deposits in AD mice. Cromolyn also promoted Aβ42 uptake in microglial cell-based assays. Collectively, our data reveal robust effects of cromolyn, alone, or in combination with ibuprofen, in reducing aggregation-prone Aβ levels and inducing a neuroprotective microglial activation state favoring Aβ phagocytosis versus a pro-neuroinflammatory state. These findings support the use of cromolyn, alone, or with ibuprofen, as a potential AD therapeutic.
Published in Clinical Drug Investigation, August 2017
Abstract Excerpts: The combination of cromolyn and ibuprofen is being investigated as a treatment for early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of cromolyn and ibuprofen co-administration in healthy elderly adult volunteers. In this open-labeled study, 26 subjects, aged 55–75 years, received co-administration of inhaled cromolyn (single dose 17.1 mg; double dose 34.2 mg total) and oral ibuprofen (single dose 10 mg; double dose 20 mg total). Blood sampling was performed for 6 h after co-administration in all subjects; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected in three to four subjects per cohort for 4 h following co-administration. Safety parameters, including adverse events (AEs), were monitored throughout the study. The combination of cromolyn and ibuprofen was safe and well tolerated. The concentrations of cromolyn and ibuprofen observed in the CSF are considered sufficient to titrate the estimated daily amyloid production and the associated inflammatory response in patients with AD.
A Food and Drug Administration-approved Asthma Therapeutic Agent Impacts Amyloid BETA in the Brain in a Transgenic Model of Alzheimer Disease
Published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, January 2015
Abstract: Interfering with the assembly of Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides from monomer to oligomeric species and fibrils or promoting their clearance from the brain are targets of anti-Aβ-directed therapies in Alzheimer disease. Here we demonstrate that cromolyn sodium (disodium cromoglycate), a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug already in use for the treatment of asthma, efficiently inhibits the aggregation of Aβ monomers into higher-order oligomers and fibrils in vitro without affecting Aβ production. In vivo, the levels of soluble Aβ are decreased by over 50% after only 1 week of daily intraperitoneally administered cromolyn sodium. Additional in vivo microdialysis studies also show that this compound decreases the half-life of soluble Aβ in the brain. These data suggest a clear effect of a peripherally administered, Food and Drug Administration-approved medication on Aβ economy, supporting further investigation of the potential long-term efficacy of cromolyn sodium in Alzheimer disease.
Published in Nature, 2021
Abstract: Cromolyn is a known mast cell stabilizer and is approved for treatment of asthma and for other allergic indications. Cromolyn, in a new redesigned dry powder formulation, is being tested in a pivotal clinical trial in combination with low dose ibuprofen to treat early Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) subjects. To better understand the mechanistic effect cromolyn has in slowing down or halting the neuroinflammatory response associated with AD progression, we tested the effect of cromolyn to dampen the inflammatory response in the human HMC3 microglia cell line. The direct effect of cromolyn on HMC3 microglia is on cytokines and chemokines production following their activation by the inflammatory cytokine TNF‐α. Cromolyn and a new fluorinated analog dramatically reduced the secretion of a wide spectrum of inflammatory mediators, which included cytokines such as IL‐1β, IL‐6, IL‐8 and IFN‐γ, and chemokines such as CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4. These results bolster our understanding of how our cromolyn platform modulates toxic microglia behavior as a dynamic future treatment option for neurodegenerative disorders.
Published in Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2021
Abstract Conclusion: Substantial uptake of A42 in both na¨ıve BV2 and BV2-CD33WT cells observed with 4 indicate conversion of microglial cells from a pro-inflammatory to an activation state favoring A phagocytosis/clearance. These findings suggest that a fluoro-cromolyn analog could reduce fibril-prone A42 in vivo and thereby serve as a therapeutic for the treatment and prevention of AD.
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